5.3- Influences During the Romantic Era

Politics

Industrial Revolution Continues
[audio:IndustrialRevolution.mp3]

  • Trains
  • Steamships
  • Bicycle
  • Increasing urbanization
    • Need for a concentrated work force
    • Need to be near raw materials
    • Need to be near transportation hubs
  • Gas lamps for street lighting
  • Communication
    • Telegraph & telephone

France

Eugene Delecroix – “Liberty Leading the People” 1830

[audio:France.mp3]
  • 1804 Napoleon is Emperor
  • 1814 Napoleon is ousted
  • 1814-1830 The Bourbon Dynasty holds the throne in France
  • 1830 – Charles X is overthrown in “The July Revolution”
  • 9 Street riots in Paris between 1830-1848 – Second Republic is established
  • 1870 Haussmann completes the rebuilding of Paris
    • Infected alleyways and centers of epidemics destroyed
    • Wider streets – Grand boulevards
    • New water and sewage systems
    • The poor and working class are evicted to the suburbs
    • Upper bourgeois strolling become vogue as a result
  • 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War

Abolitionism


[audio:Antislavery.mp3]

  • Europe and America
  • Implications for the Caribbean and South America as well

America

“Prisoners from the Front” -Winslow Homer – 1866

[audio:America.mp3]

Russia

Franz Roubaud “Seige of Sevastopol” 1904

[audio:Crimeanwar.mp3]
  • 1853-56 Crimean War – Russia allied with France and Britain against the Ottoman Empire
  • Fought on the Crimean peninsula – now part of modern day Ukraine

Germany
[audio:germany.mp3]

Britain

“Queen Victoria” George Hayter 1838

[audio:Britain.mp3]

Religion

Emancipation of Jewish society in Europe

[audio:Jews.mp3]

Artists, musicians and writers capitalize on the “God granted” abilities

[audio:Religionstillthere.mp3]

Recognition that the more we know, the more we realize there is more that is unfathomable

Romantic era writers capitalize on conflicts within the human mind and heart as well as on our ignorance of things.

The mystical and mysterious is celebrated.

Nature is depicted as evidence of God’s Bounty.

Sciences

[audio:Science.mp3]

Louis Pasteur 1822-95

  • French
  • The study of micro organisms
  • Understanding how disease is spread
  • Sterile practices
  • Pasteurization of milk

Charles Darwin 1809-82

  • English
  • On the Origin of Species
  • The theory of evolution based on natural selection

Sigmund Freud 1856-1939

  • Born in Moravia, lived in Vienna
  • At the turn of the century he begins to publish his theories
  • Develops the concepts of psychoanalysis
  • Splits the human psyche into the ego, the id and the super ego

Paint Technology
Improvements in how paints were stored made painting out of doors much easier

Architecture

[audio:neogothicandbaroque.mp3]

Neo Gothic

  • BritishParliament 1836
  • Gothic revival was strongest in England
  • Meant to evoke the spiritual and ethical values of the Middle ages

Neo Baroque

  • Charles Garnier – Opera House Paris 1861-1874
  • Meant to emulate extreme sumptuousness

Industrial Developments

[audio:innovations.mp3]
  • Cast Iron
  • Steel
  • Formed concrete

Crystal Palace – built for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in England

Please explore the link for this amazing building that did not withstand the test of time.

  • Joseph Paxton – gardener to the Duke of Devonshire
  • Prefabricated, modular cast iron frame work
  • Supporting over 900,000 square feet of glass
  • This model was quickly adapted to railway stations and other large spaces
  • Crystal Palace was destroyed

Louis Sullivan 1856-1924
American

  • Commercial buildings reinforced with steel and formed concrete
  • Allowed for building higher
  • “Form follows function”
  • Buildings should elevate the spirit of those who worked in it
  • Wainwright Building

Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi – Statue of Liberty 1886
French

  • Collaborated with Gustave Eiffel
  • Over 150 feet tall
  • Gift from France to America

Eiffel Tower – Gustave Eiffel

  • Built in 1889
  • A demonstration of engineering technology

Art Nouveau and Architecture

  • A short lived style
  • Influenced by nature
  • Decorative features that included curving lines, like plant foliage

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